La hibernación, un comportamiento invernal

La hibernación, un comportamiento invernal

Escrito por: Jorge Rubio    24 diciembre 2014     1 minuto

La llegada del invierno y la bajada de temperatura nos deja uno de los comportamientos más curiosos en la naturaleza: la hibernación. Hay que señalar, que aunque la mayor parte de las especies animales recurren a esta capacidad en las fechas en las que el frío y la comida escasea, hay otras que la realizan en otras estaciones, como es el caso del lirón careto (Eliomys quercinus), un pequeño roedor que hiberna tanto en verano como en invierno.

Hibernar permite a los animales sobrevivir en condiciones extremas. Para ello ralentizan toda su actividad corporal para mantenerla al mínimo, de esta forma pueden mantener y gastar sus reservas energéticas de forma muy gradual. De esta manera, pueden estar meses en un estado aletargado ajenos a las condiciones del mundo exterior. A pesar de que el consumo de energía se reduce, los animales suelen terminar estos periodos hambrientos y con una perdida de peso considerable.

Este tipo de comportamiento está más extendido entre los animales homeotermos, aquellos de sangre caliente, siendo el mayor exponente de la hibernación los osos, al menos a nivel popular. Como ya he señalado antes, otros mamíferos como los ratoncillos hibernan, aunque también es un comportamiento que puede apreciarse en insectos o anfibios.

En cualquier caso, antes de sumirse en este letargo, los animales se preparan durante semanas acumulando reservas de alimentos y grasas para para poder soportar los rigores de la hibernación. Del mismo modo, también en lugar en el animal pretenda hibernar será preparado, normalmente siendo escogida la madriguera habitual u otro lugar en que se adapte a las exigentes condiciones necesarias para poder llevarla a cabo.

Fuente | Wikipedia, Fundación oso pardo.
Fotografía | Магадан

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